Classification Of Personalities

Mayer's Type Preferences.
The following classification was adapted from Linda V.Berens,LindaK.Ernst and Melisaa a.Smith
Quick Guide to the 16 personality Types and Teams.-Applying essentials to to Creat Effective Teams (Telco Publication 2004)
 Using Mayer's interpretation on Jung's theories,The focus is on column of grouped people by these function pairs.It highlight differences and that turn to point of conflicts.Mayers also wanted to put the two types  that share a preferences for same dominant function in same attitude next to each other.
Difference in  personality leads to difference in thinking result in conflict.Stress attribute varies specific to personality.                         SKIP TO FIX IMPLICATION WITH ANTIDOTES

Mayers's Table of 16-Type personality

Matrix of type with
abbreviation "I" for Introvert.."E" for Extrovert..subclass "P" perceiving "J" for Judging etc

Refers to preferred mode of perception & that of judgment.

For example,ISTJ and ISFJ both have dominant preference i.e. Introverted Sensing one tabled in each function pair.Here system is disgned considering table as cylinder that  sub-classified  INT P and ISTP arranging them side by side for dominant Introverted Thinking type, While ENTJ and ESTJ sub-classified  Dominant Extroverted Thinking type

Characteristic of personality types

 According to Jung's theory of Psychological Types we are all different in ways they think & act with importance they tag. One's ability to process different information is limited by their own type. These types are sixteen.

People can be either Extroverts or Introverts, depending on their objectivity, past experience & the direction of their activity; Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, Intuitive, according to their own information pathways; Judging or Perceiving, depending on the method in which they process received information.

Extroverts vs. Introverts

Extroverts are directed towards the objective world & act on past experience the memorise & find popular.whereas Introverts are directed towards the subjective world. They try to buy time to collect fresh information & act with processing the information. The most common differences between Extroverts and Introverts are shown below:

  • say what they think
  • are interested in what is happening around them. 
  • are interested in what is happening around them
  • are open and often talkative
  • compare their own opinions with the opinions of others
  • like action and initiative
  • easily make new friends or adapt to a new group
  • are interested in new people easily break unwanted relations

  • need to have own territory
  • often appear reserved, quiet and thoughtful
  • usually do not have many friends
  • have difficulties in making new contacts & do not make them
  • like concentration and quiet
  • do not like unexpected visits and therefore do not ma
  • are interested in their own thoughts and feelings
  • work well alone

Sensing vs. Intuition

Sensing is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its physical qualities and its affection by other information. Intuition is an ability to deal with the information on the basis of its hidden potential and its possible existence. The most common differences between Sensing and Intuitive types are shown below:

Sensing types
  • see everyone and sense everything
  • live in the here and now
  • quickly adapt to any situation
  • like pleasures based on physical sensation
  • are practical and active
  • are realistic and self-confident
Intuitive types
  • are mostly in the past or in the future
  • worry about the future more than the present
  • are interested in everything new and unusual
  • do not like routine
  • are attracted more to the theory than the practice
  • often have doubts

Thinking vs. Feeling

Thinking is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its structure and its function. Feeling is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its initial energetic condition and its interactions. The most common differences between Thinking and Feeling type are shown below:

Thinking types
  • are interested in systems, structures, patterns
  • expose everything to logical analysis
  • are relatively cold and unemotional
  • evaluate things by intellect and right or wrong
  • have difficulties talking about feelings
  • do not like to clear up arguments or quarrels
Feeling types
  • are interested in people and their feelings
  • easily pass their own moods to others
  • pay great attention to love and passion
  • evaluate things by ethics and good or bad
  • can be touchy or use emotional manipulation
  • often give compliments to please people

Perceiving vs. Judging

Perceiving types are motivated into activity by the changes in a situation. Judging types are motivated into activity by their decisions resulting from the changes in a situation. The most common differences between Perceiving and Judging types are shown below:

Perceiving types
  • act impulsively following the situation
  • can start many things at once without finishing them properly
  • prefer to have freedom from obligations
  • are curious and like a fresh look at things
  • work productivity depends on their mood
  • often act without any preparation
Judging types
  • do not like to leave unanswered questions
  • plan work ahead and tend to finish it
  • do not like to change their decisions
  • have relatively stable workability
  • easily follow rules and discipline

These four opposite pairs of preferences define eight different ways of dealing with information, which in turn result in sixteen Psychological Types:

Profession/Vocation Recommendation


Personalities of dominant SENSING OR INSTITUTING power have implication on their attitudes which in turn effect their perceiving or judging capability.It is therefore the task selection should made so as to utilize optimum strength to sustain interest with full justification made to the professional requirements.

See also.

Stress attributes
Coping Methods




What Is The Enneagram?

The word Enneagram is of Greek history.htm and refers to a diagram with nine points  or lines. "Enneagram" is the name of the system of knowledge as well as its.

The Enneagram is an ancient teaching of mysterious  history which is said to represent  every process  of creation and renewal. The Enneagram is taught  as a technology or system of  human development, self-discovery,  spiritual growth and  self-actualization.

The Enneagram is a rich and practical study of personal growth based on ancient teachings of mysterious origins. Today, this study has a modern overlay of psychological typing rooted in these ancient teachings.

The Enneagram of personality describes nine distinct types. Each personality type is defined by a chief mental and emotional concern which underlies the development of the personality and highly influences the life experiences of the person who falls under that particular Enneagram type.

The Enneagram, today, is most often presented as a system Of nine types.htm.  Each personality type is  characterized by specific patterns of  thought, speaking style, feelings,  emotions, sensations, and belief  systems which are universal to the  type.



Type One     :   The Perfectionist

Type Two     :  The Giver

Type Three   :  The Performer

Type Four     :  The Tragic Romantic
Type Five     :  The Observer

Type Six      :   The Devil's Advocate
Type Seven   :  The Epicure

Type  Eight   :  The Boss

Type Nine     : 
Type One:  The Perfectionist.

The predominant habit of attention is noticing what is in error or needs to be corrected.

Type One, a member of the so-called anger, or, gut/body-based triad, 

For the One, self-forgetting is substituting the "good girl" or "good boy" for being who she or he truly is. One's  abandon themselves by identifying with  the "good girl" or "good  boy" role.

The passion of One is "anger" and the corresponding fixation is "resentment".

Whereas One's see themselves as being helpful in this respect, others see  the  One as being critical and  judgmental.

Perfection has to  do more with obeying the letter of the law than being  perfect  in every respect. Thus, it's not unusual to find a One on your organization's bylaws committee.

The hallmark of the One is the "inner critic". Most everyone, regardless of   type, has an inner critic.  But with the One, the inner critic is a constant companion sometimes referred to as the judge, the warden, the policeman or  the  committee.  This inner critic is evaluating, and reporting on, most everything   the One does, says or thinks about.

Here, briefly, are some of the major issues: 


A  contained  (controlled) or righteous anger. One's sometimes do not  know  they are angry, though others may easily pick up on it.

Judging  mind:

Critical, judgmental, opinionated, constant  monitoring and internal  commentary on right and wrong.



Difficult to allow one's self to experience pleasure, "There  can be pleasure  in working." Repression  of impulses and desires. 

Other characteristics include being  responsible, maintaining high level of  integrity, working hard  and avoiding mistakes.

Type Two: The Giver
The passion is "pride" and the corresponding fixation is "flattery

There is a pride in the giving or helping.


Others needs are "louder" than own. Two's often like to feel they choose whether to fill the others  needs. Two's often experience self as self-sufficient, without needs. Own needs are repressed A major issue or preoccupation is the gaining of approval and avoidance of rejection by intuiting the needs of the other and becoming almost indispensable (from the Two's perspective) in meeting those needs.


Other issues include, but are not limited to:


Relationship is central, the thing most important and, seemingly, the reason for being. Everything is perceived as relationship. Two's are aggressive in pursuit of relationship.

Other Referencing:

The Two is "other" referencing and is drawn to energetic, powerful others. The focal point of attention often is the space between self and other.


Being expressive; actively moving toward. Becoming indispensable, charming, engaging, social, helpful, caring, and loving.




Indirect expression of one's own needs.


Dependent  on the response and approval from the other.


Two can be emotional, empathetic, dramatic, speak in superlatives and flattering.



Type Three: The Performer

Type Three, the Performer, is the child who lost hope that the Universe will provide and discovered that love, recognition, value and acceptance came to those who could achieve, who could "do", and who could accomplish. Performance, however, also must be matched with an image of success.

The Three is the core point of the "heart, or feeling, tirade". The passion is deceit and the corresponding fixation is vanity. Key issues for the Three include, but are not limited to the following:


The deceit is of one's self through the unconscious adaptation to, and an  identification with, a role that is deemed by the Three to be the epitome of success in a given situation.


There can be "used car salespersons" in whatever field--and there's a part of me that loves to sell ideas and feel the approval and flow from the crowd as I respond to their interests using their language and experiences. It's great!


The Three primarily wants others to respect the Three's ability to get things done. But the three also is keenly aware of the approving or disapproving demeanor of the other in almost any situation.


The Three looks for what to do. Attention goes to doing for approval from others. The Three is doing rather than being, and doing to fill time. The Three can accomplish a lot in a short time and often expects non-stop performance for self.


The focus is on tasks, getting things done, accomplishment. The Three takes charge to move things along. This orientation to tasks and getting things done also applies to leisure time, and the Three learns to control through tasks.


I have always been a workaholic--unfortunately for my bank account it's been in education fields, not commerce. I drove myself through master's and doctoral programs before I was 30 while working full time and raising a young family. Succeeding has always been a given, not an option--and it came easily and naturally for me.

. I pride myself on efficiency and get a lot of pleasure from it, especially if there is elegance that I can also bring to the task.


. But the motivation for all this efficiency has been to keep my fears at bay. I genuinely like being efficient, but it's like being in service to the devil for me to continue using efficiency to keep feelings repressed.



There is inattention to feelings. The Three often is too busy to deal with feelings and sets feelings aside. Feelings "aren't there", can be set aside. Sticking with feelings is hard work.


Getting mad or telling people off is a huge waste of time and energy and does not move the project forward. So I put the feelings on the back burner and keep the project on track--and experience the feelings later when I have time to work it through.

Marketing Orientation

There often is a marketing orientation in the languaging of the three that can be recognized through references to self, to accomplishments, to success, to performance to image to name dropping.

Type Four:The Tragic Romantic

Type Four, which has been called the Tragic Romantic or Artist,  is part of the  2-3-4 "feeling" or "image" triad.

The passion  is "envy" with the corresponding fixation of "melancholy".

Envy  is acted out according to the subtype as competitive (sexual subtype),  feelings of shame (social subtype) and reckless/dauntless (self-preservationist  subtype).

Attention tends toward something special that  is missing or unavailable.  Fours frequently report childhood experiences  of loss and/or abandonment.

The leading issues of the type  are as follows: 


Noticing  what other's have that they do not. It's not so much that they  covet  what another has, it's more like "what's wrong with me or my life  that I  can't enjoy having the same." 




Feeling special, different. Perhaps even feeling like a misfit. 


Feelings  often are paramount in the experience of a Four, especially  melancholy.  Feelings seem to be what is real about experience. Experience is  "mapped" by one's feelings.


Fours are in touch with the suffering and emotions of others,  sometimes  experiencing the emotions of another as if such emotions  were there own. 


An appreciation for beauty, a sensitivity to appearances.  Romantic and  artistic.


Relationships often are a major focus, if not the major focus.  Four's often  report experiencing a push/pull phenomenon in relationships  in which they see  the best of what they don't have and the worst  of what they do have.

The above is but a brief recap  of the some of the issues which may or may not  dominate the life  of a Four.

Type Five:The Observer

Type Five, often called "The Observer" is part of the so-called "Fear Triad" of Five, Six and Seven. These also are often called the "head" types, for fear, it is said, takes them into their heads (their minds).

The focal point of attention is watching (observing) with an eye to "what is it the other expects or wants from me."

For Type Five, the passion is avarice, or greed and the corresponding fixation is stinginess. The avarice/stinginess personality often shows up as a unquenchable thirst for information or knowledge and also a holding on or grasping in the sense that "I have so little I must conserve what I have" such as time and energy as well as material resources.


Words, phrases and issues often associated with the Five include, but are not limited to:



Thinking seems to replace doing, or prepares (intellectualizes) for doing in advance . The talk of the Five is often punctuated with the words "I think" and "I know".



Fives seem to have an isolation mechanism which allows them to readily detach from, or reduce the impact of feelings and emotions. It's as if feelings are suspended in the moment and experienced after the fact when there is an opportunity, in privacy, to think about or experience the feelings.



Fives tend to reduce their needs to a level at which they can competently take care of them themselves. They do not want to be subject to "needing" something from someone else. To do so could cause undesirable feelings and emotions to surface. Thus, the Five is seen as having few needs and being self-sufficient in taking care of those needs.


Compartmentalization speaks to a tendency to keep the various aspects of their lives (inner and outer) separate from one another. Some Fives also describe how their mind stores information as if it is compartmentalized into various sectors.


This is the chief psychological defense mechanism of the Five. The intent is to avoid intrusion, to protect oneself from invasiveness, by a world that wants too much. There is a "move away" and a desire for privacy. Fives are not likely, or do not easily, volunteer personal information.  

Body Language:

The Five is often experienced as having a quite voice, limited energy and a general stillness in their composure. Yet, they are alert, aware, and mentally active.

The above comments are an attempt to briefly depict the more universal and usual traits of the Five.

 If you are a Type Five, and would like to describe your experience of one or more of the above characteristics, please go to this web's discussion page, The Enneagram Exchange and post your comments.
Type Six:The Devil's Advocate

For a provocative poem which helps to set the background for the inner experience of the Six, please see "Fear."

For a discussion about the Six by exemplars of the type, please see Type Talk: Type Six.


The type can manifest in the primary behaviors which are called phobic and counter phobic. Other variations of the type are called the "dutiful" and "warm" sixes.

Type Six is said to be the core point of the fear triad of Five, Six and Seven. "Fear" is the passion and "cowardice" is said to be the fixation. By this it is meant that fear is the most familiar experience of the emotional center and cowardice is the most familiar experience of the intellectual or mental center. The personality, then, is said to be organized around the preoccupations of fear and cowardice.


The focal point of attention, that is, the habit of noticing and the sensitivity to outer experience, is to potential harm, danger (either real or implied), or threat of danger.


The more common characteristic issues of the Enneagram type have to do with scanning and vigilance, trust, safety, authority, doubt, active imagination and negativity.


Type Seven:  The Epicure

Type Seven, the third member of the fear triad of Five, Six and Seven is known as the Epicure or the Generalist and sometimes has been called the Adventurer.

The Seven, unlike the Five who usually withdraws inward into the freeing and fascinating world of the mind, often moves outward to taste the many fascinating and sometimes adventurous ways of engaging life in its many manifestations. But like the Five, the Seven also is a "head type" and favors the experiences of the mind over the body. For in the mind, life can unfold according to the delights of the imagination.
The passion is "gluttony", an unquenchable appetite for new experiences, and the fixation is "planning", a habitual way of focusing attention on the many pleasant possibilities for the future including options and backup plans.

Words frequently associated with the Seven include hedonist, permissiveness, wish fulfillment, narcissism, fun, excitement, enthusiastic, shallow and happiness.


The primary character traits of the Seven, which are experienced to a lesser or greater extent by virtue of the Seven's subtype and the influence of it's wing points, include but are not limited to:



This is a  gluttony for experience and enjoyment. Being active with lots of projects. Over doing and overbooked. Experiencing "a little bit of the very finest of everything". Endless possibilities, many interests. Not staying with one thing too long in case it might get boring, and "boring is death".

Charming:  Outgoing, playful, energetic, engaging, easy laughter (but sometimes with a slightly nervous edge).


Life is an adventure. Life is to be enjoyed.  A desire to have fun.


Difficulty with commitment, not wanting limits. "I don't believe in limitations." "Keep the door open at any price". "I can make a commitment. I'll stay in the relationship until one or the other of us decides it's time to move on."


A man makes a commitment to be an architect, and his weeks and months of imaginative planning and design are filled with one new house after another.


Many interests. An active imagination that easily juggles fascinating inter-relating and inter-connecting ideas and possibilities.


The ability to easily and rapidly shift one's attention from one idea or set of ideas to another and at the same time see the interconnectedness of the complexity of thoughts and how these thoughts will all come together into a cohesive reality.


Re framing:

The ability to deftly take the proposition of another and play it back in the context or nomenclature of the Seven's point of view. To the other, it seems as if what the Seven plays back "is almost like what I said but somehow different and I wonder if it even has the same meaning?"


A talk style which is a way of explaining one's behavior even when no explanation is called for.


Feeling entitled. Presenting a superior position. "I like me." "I'm OK, so if there's a problem here it must not be me." A Seven panelists in a rapid-fire comeback says something like, "I used to be like that (the other sevens), but now that I'm more evolved my experience is much different."


The Seven leads a busy life filled with telephone calls, appointments, dates, social engagements, errands, plans and projects. Over-booked and a full plate. With all the activity, a Seven can look like a Three, who's activity is in the context of achievement and results; or like a Two, who's activity is in the context of giving. But the Seven's activity is in the context of the fun or fascination to be derived from the immediate experience while the mind is planning the next.  


Sevens typically know what they want. Like the rest of us, they have many selves (sub-personalities) but those selves are in reference or response to the Seven and his or her interests and not to others or how others may perceive them.


Type Eight:  The Boss

Often called "The Boss", the Eight is the third member of the so-called anger triad of Eight, Nine and One.

Gets to the point. They want short answers, Direct and Affirmative, sometimes to the point of insensitivity. The others "in-directness" is experienced as lying.

The focus of attention is a preoccupation, albeit usually unconscious, with power, dominance and control of space and territory.


Words often associated with the Eight are "punitive, dominance, insensitivity, autonomy, decisiveness, combative, shamelessness and protecting"


Major issues or characteristics of the type Eight include, but are not limited to, the following:


Concern  with strength and protecting the weak. A  need to be big and strong.


Being the power, the person is charge, or, knowing whom else has power.


Excessive "Too much", "Too long". Doesn't  know when to stop. Keeps on going or consuming whatever the Eight wants.


Anger is the most familiar feeling. Anger comes up in response to hurt, injustice, unfairness. Anger is expressed (not repressed, as with the One), and it represents respect, strength.

"My Way":

The Eight wants, and usually gets what he or she wants. There is no such word as "No". "MY way is the RIGHT way", whereas with the ONE, the RIGHT way is the MORAL or correct way.


Likes to  confront. Confronts to know what the truth is. Enjoys a  worthy opponent.



Type Nine:The Mediator

Type Nine is the core Type of what is called the "anger" and "gut- or body-based" triad of 8, 9 and 1.

The passion of the Nine is said to be "Sloth" with a corresponding fixation of "Indolence", or, psychic laziness.

The sloth and indolence speak to a lack of passion in the sense of "active love" in the emotional center and a certain laziness of the mind in the context of the mental center.

The Nine personality type is said to represent the child that went asleep to it's self, meaning no personal agenda.

Issues associated with the Nine are as follows:


Inessential may get equal attention to the essential. All points are equally important.


The anger is repressed, and/or, not known or available to the Nine. It is contained, or, expressed indirectly such as with passive aggressive behavior.


Wanting  things to be comfortable and familiar. Avoidance of  conflict.


Likes repetitive tasks.


Wanting to belong. Merges easily with others. Other referencing

Stress Attribures

Checklist of Stress Symptoms

We have tried to explain clearly what happens to our bodies

when we don't take steps to relieve our stress levels.fairly comprehensive check-

list (cf. pages 23-24) of the various symptoms related to type of personality.

click for

more types

Stress Attribures-2

 Personality THEORY OF Difference

... Basic nature groomed by parent's heredity, inculcated by upbringing of chieldhood & conditioned by vocation envionment, a person makes clinging & subsiquently obsession to an identy.The self identy is an inseperable from pathoes of Ego,So let us revisit;
Basics of ID, EGO & Superego
       Awareness  itself will empower you to explore Solution & Wish you best Luck.             Click to Abort
       For Advance course,                                                                                                         Please Register                                                                    Working on Theories

Overview Of Theory

A personality theory have been compiled on known fact & stimulates the new ones.I may describe what a personality to be  in isolation or  it may contemplate what a personality to  b classified by an approach to be made. Different personality's attributes are evaluated through varied approach.  In the trait approach we are interested in how one person differs from another; one is more emotional and is more sexual than another. One is  not more active; one is less emotional than Tom but more emotional than third, etc. The goal of the trait approach in to find the characteristics that give us ways of distinguishing people from each other. A personality is distinguishable individual in terms of qualitative and quantitative differential from other such individual.


The Structural approach

A personality is a structured whole, definable in temperaments own distinctive attributes.

In the structural approach we are not primarily interested in how Ram's emotionality compares with Balam's and Salman’s; we are interested in how Ram's emotionality is related to its own level of activity and his  level of sexuality. Similarly, we are interested in how activity is related to ids emotionality and sensuality


The trait Adjustment approach.

The adjustment approach considers the trait and structural views, for it recognizes that there are traits which distinguish Ram from Balram and SALMAN and that these traits have their own unique organization within the individual. It considers the person's social environ- ment-his teachers, his employer, his wife, and his children but primarily emphasizes the interaction between the person and his environment.  in detail. Here we are concerned with the personality theories related to each approach.


    A personality trait is any fairly permanent aspect of a person’s behavior or experience by means of which he can be distinguished from other persons. As a scheme for studying personality a trait approach has many advant- ages: it is so simple that it is an inevitable starting place; it provides a very helpful way of describing in  much of terms what we know about personality; and it lends itself  to exponentiation. Attempting to cope with too many traits destroys these advantages. If a trait list is adequate, the shorter it is the better.


A trait list   There are about eighteen thousand words in Webster’s New International Dictionary which are possible names for traits I Allport, 19371. We can eliminate about one-fourth of them from serious consideration because they describe temporary rather than permanent qualities: ablaze, alarmed, upset ,awed  We an eliminate another fourth because they describe reactions to a personality rather than the personality itself: worthy, able-brained, atrocious, etc. , however, more than forty five hundred possible trait namely, beginning with absentminded, abstemious, academic, and accommodating.

    We can reduce the list by eliminating synonyms. We can also group pairs of opposites. For example, active and inactive can be thought of as opposite ends of one ; similarly, sensitive-insensitive, pessimistic-optimistic. inhibited-expressive, etc. Even the most ingenious processes of eliminating and condensing, however, still leave several hundred possible traits.

    We should select traits that are independent of each other,  We should select traits that are stable. It would be of little value for us to know how high a person's self-confidence was today if it should him out to be quite different tomorrow. Most important of all, we should select traits that are significantly related to the task of understanding people. Those are drive and temperamental traits; psychologists interested in perception emphasize  traits  in  their area; clinical psychologists concern themselves w%h traits relevant to the self and to problem solving; and social psychologists emphasize value and human-relations traits.

    The following traits have been selected by the author and are defined in respective attribute.

Drive traits: activity, sensory awareness, and sexuality

Temperamental traits: emotionality, optimism, and expressiveness

Perceptual traits: thinking extroversion, speed of closure, and flexibility of closure

Self traits: self-extension, self-confidence, self-insight

Value traits: economic, religious, scientific, aesthetic, and liberal values

Problem solving traits: ambition, emotional control, orderliness, intelligence Human-relations traits: gregariousness, dominance, warmth, conformity

Each of these traits evokes the serious interest of some psychologists. 

Structural approach

..Interaction to person can best be understood by studying trait against the background of all of his behavior unlike the trait approach asks:'How does this man's behavior different from the behavior of other men?" The structural approach asks: "How is this man's behavior internally organized? In his summary Ferry [1935, pp. 699-701] attempts a structural description of William James:


We have met two William Jameses: the moody, unstable neurasthenic equilibrium, his sometimes  vivid and illogical imagination and and the radiant James, gay, loving, companionable, and sensitive.

  We have, in fact, met a third James, in whom the second of these is deepened and enriched through being unlike the first with the Active tension, uncertainty,  unpredictability,  extemporized  adaptation to change, anarchy, unpretentious unnatural condition which gives him deepest sense of well-being.
     Most personality theorists agree that the individual should be viewed as a total functioning with resources to his reach. Nonetheless, the ways in which they attempt to deal with the problem vary. Some, attempting to interact the trait and the structural views, assume that people do have traits in common but that in each person these traits are arranged in his own unique pattern which adequately describes the organization of his personality Others assume that people have unique traits but that these traits fall into common types of personality .... Still others emphasize that each person has unique traits, unique ways of organizing them into a whole, and can only he studied as a unique intricacies. Freud's psychoanalytic theory stresses ideas of personality organization.



The psychoanalytic is viewed many things. It is a way of describing personality structure as well as a way of describing how the structure develops and changes. It is a theory of personality, a method of investigating, and a method of psychotherapy. Freud altered his intricate theory many timer during his life, and must of his followers have added some ideas of their own, below is briefly described the id, the Ego, and the Superego, central features of personality structure as viewed by Freudians. Figure shows there features in relation to each other.

    The id. The id consists of everything psychological that is present at birth; it is in close touch with the body processes, and it is a reservoir of psychic energy that furnished all the power from the operation of the ego and the superego. The id cannot tolerate discomfort. Consequently, when the tension level of the organism is raised, the id attempts to discharge the tension immediately. its method of tension reduction is called comfort zone.which operates through reflex action  that is primary process


Fig. Structural elements in the psychoanalytic theory of Freud. The id is entirely unconscious; the the Ego are mainly mediates. The ego carries out the conflicting demands of the  and the superego and reinforce most of the region of outer-world 

It is called the superego principle, which operates either through rapid action or through what is called the intrinsic process. Sneezing and blinking result in the reduction of tensions through reflex action.

    The primary process is an attempt to discharge tension by forming an image of an object that will remove the tension. The hallucinatory experience in which the desired object is present in the form of a mental image is called wish fulfillment. The best example of the primary process is the dream, that Freud believed always represented the fulfillment or the attempted fulfillment of a wish. The primary process, however, is not capable of reducing tension-the hungry person cannot create mental images of food. Consequently, a secondary psychological process, the ego, develops.

    The ego. The id knows only the subjective reality of the mind; the ego distinguishes between things in the mind and things in the external world. The ego, the executive of the personality, obeys the reality principle and operates by means of the secondary process. The pleasure principle is only concerned with whether an experience is painful or pleasant: the reality principle is also concerned with whether ii is true or false, that is, whether it has eternal existence or not. The secondary process is the realistic thinking by means of which the ego formulates a strategic program for satisfying a need. Thus, the hungry man thinks of a place where food may be found and then looks in that place.     The ego impart action to forward the aims of the id. It is power of the id,but nevertheless total.Since it is hard task,thus ego is often on toes and still more in subject of sexuality.In an assertive training, structure approach has edge over trait graph.It emphases the balance, interdependent & holistic part of internal organization of personality.